Krieger N, et al. Jim Crow and Premature Mortality Among the US Black and White Population, 1960–2009: An Age–Period–Cohort Analysis. Epidemiology. 2014. The abolition of Jim Crow (i.e. legal racial discrimination overturned by the US 1964 Civil Rights Act) reduced premature mortality (death under age 65) in the US black population. However, the 2-fold excess risk among blacks persisted in both Jim Crow and non-Jim Crow states from 1960 to 2009.
Hilmert CJ, Dominguez TP, Schetter CD, et al. Lifetime racism and blood pressure changes during pregnancy: Implications for fetal growth. Health Psychology. 2014
Slack KS, Font SA, Jones J. The complex interplay of adverse childhood experiences, race, and income. Health Soc Work. 2017. Identifies relative contributions of ACEs, race, and adult income to predict three sets of adverse adult health outcomes. Found that ACEs strongly predict health risk behaviors, indicators of poor general health, and chronic health conditions.
Thayer ZM, Blair IV, Buchwald DS, et.al. Racial discrimination associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in a sample of American Indian adults. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2017. Hypertension is frequent among American Indians who experience substantial interpersonal racial discrimination. Using the Everyday Discrimination Scale, study showed that the experience of racial discrimination was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure.