"Jim Crow" - Legalized Segregation in the US 1868-1965

"Jim Crow" is a symbol of racial segregation and prejudice.

JIM CROW Laws enforced legal racial segregation in 35 Southern US states from 1868 to the mid-1960’s.  The health impacts of the traumatic experience of segregation-discrimination are lifelong.

These laws mandated segregation for blacks and whites in public schools, public places, and transportation plus prohibited intermarriage.
JIM CROW legal segregation ended after 1954 US Supreme Court decision Brown v Board of Ed, 1964 Civil Rights Act and 1965 Voting Rights Act (50+ years ago) – however de facto segregation still exists in America to this day - in housing, education, economic opportunities, and access to healthcare.

The character called JIM CROW was a racist depiction of an African-American man performed in the 1830’s in blackface by a white traveling actor, named Thomas Rice.


Krieger (2016)  Jim Crow and Premature Mortality among the US Black and White Population, 1960-2009.  Epidemiology.   Black persons born in the segregated US South (prior to 1964) have a persistent increased mortality as compared to Blacks born outside segregated states.  In all states, Blacks have a persistent 2-fold excess premature mortality as compared to Whites.

BOOK:  Ibram X. Kendi (2016)  Stamped from the Beginning
Kendi, a professor of history and international relations subtitles his book “the definitive history of racist ideas”, and his research is exhaustive.
Kendi shows that racist ideas did not arise from ignorance or hatred.  They were created to justify and rationalize deeply entrenched discriminatory policies and the nation's racial inequities.